Monday, 24 June 2013

CONSTRAINTS TO THE USE OF MEDIA TECHNOLOGY



Chapter One

Introduction

Background of the Study

        Education brings about a change in information, knowledge, undertakings or skills and attitude in an individual. This change is to enable an individual to solver personal and community problems. Thus, education provide for the good and sustenance of the individual and society in general. Schools exist in a technological environment undergoing tremendous changes as a result of advances in media such as Media Technology which has transformed all spheres of human activities.

         According to Isaac, Brockman and Mogale (2001), media technology and use of networking, have reached both developed and many developing economies, albeit to varying degrees and levels of intensity. The ubiquity of these changes have manifested through the extra ordinary expansion of the internet, and the world wide web, as well as rapid deployment of wireless networks, giving rise to the term “networking revolution”. The use of media technology in educational management has necessitated the government innovative policy to provide facilities and necessary infrastructure for the promotion of Media Technology at all levels of education (FRN, 2004). Mani (2001) declared innovative policy as those efforts by governments that encourage the accumulation, diffusion and commercial use of new products, processes and services by firms.
Admittedly, at the secondary level of the educational system, several changes have taken place in terms of broadened purposes, expand curricula and extra-curricula activities. Consequently, the managerial tasks of the principals have become more complex and challenging. The principals by virtue of their position play pivotal roles in the educational system. They are responsible for the actual implementation of the National Policy on Education at the secondary school level. As managers, they are responsible for decision making, planning, organizing, communicating, influencing, delegating, staff development, supervising, motivating, conflict management, time management, coordinating and evaluating in their schools. These managerial tasks are carried out in the areas of academic programmes, construction and maintenance of physical facilities, staff and student personnel services, special services and public relations. In carrying out these duties, the principals work in collaboration with the ministry of education, school board, teachers, parents, guardians, and other stakeholders in the external environment. They are therefore, expected to act as change agents by developing creative and innovative ways of harnessing both human and material resources for the actualization of educational goals and objectives at the secondary school level.         Since the school is a formal organization, formal documentation of past, present and future events and activities are integral parts of the managerial process. Over the years, documents were stored in print form with its attendant problems ranging from limited capacity to total loss of important information. These problems have necessitated the adoption of Media Technology for facilitating the management of secondary schools. Vernon (2001) stated that media technology is a collective term covering all those technologies both hardware and software, dedicated to the capture, storage, processing, transmission, and presentation of information. 
        In the heart of media are computers. They have performance characteristics which make them most appropriate for management decision making. These are accuracy, consistency and repetitiveness, automatic control, storage and networking (Gbadeyan, 2005). The principals are normally inundated with different forms of data development of modern and specialized digital skill with enable them create data bases and electronically manipulate information efficiently. Broadcast technology has long been an integral part of the educational process. Digital teletext and radio have facilitated teaching and learning. Close-circuit television which allows receivers to be connected to transmitter through wire or cable also facilitates the educational process (Nworgu and Nworgu, 2008).  The principals use printed materials and documents in communicating to internal and external stakeholders about the varied activities of their schools. Printed materials such as newsletters, leaflets, posters, calendar of work, diaries, annual reports, journals, newspapers and magazines are powerful assets in creating and maintaining a successful school system. Technological innovations have revolutionized printing and publishing from the old black and white to colourfully and beautifully designed educational materials that enhance the educational process (Nworgu and Nworgu, 2008).



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