Saturday, 15 August 2015

Constraint to Local Achievement in Business Studies

1.    Lack of equipment rank highest (100%) among the constraints while shortage of relevant textbooks and lack of interest on the part of the school authorities rank lowest (63%). The constaint as perceived by both teachers and students are similar most of the implementation constraint lies in the areas
of staff shortage, inadequacies in the numbers of teaching equipment and facilities, shortage of funds and in some cases poor attitude towards the subjects.
Other factors include:
1.              Newness of School Curriculum: Business studies is a new field of study in Nigeria, here its philosophy and objectives are not clearly defined in the new national policy on education. Aina (1990) noted that business studies is not more than 50 years old in United States which can rightly be called its home. The time, allocated to business studies in secondary school time table is not sufficient for the teachers to lay a good foundation for business training or impact any meaningful selectable skills.
2.              Facilities learning and instructional materials, machine and other equipment needed for teaching business studies subjects are either completely absent or in short supply. This is a handicap to the acquisition of the manipulation skills expected of the students. Some of these equipment/instructional materials are:
i.                Accounting machine
ii.              Typewriter
iii.            Textbooks
iv.            Stationeries
v.              Teaching aids
vi.            Stop watch e.t.c
vii.          Suitable classrooms and typing pools without these equipments, the teaching becomes more of theories than practical and this change the type of manpower development needed in business studies.
3.              Inadequate professionally trained/ under staffing.
Okechukwu (1984) noted that one of the major problems of obtaining teachers who are occupationally competent and also supporting skills which are integral to the success of the instruction process.
Besides, Mackerie (1986) found that teachers identified lack of instructional aids, inadequate administrative support and poor fringe benefit as causes of unattractive of business teaching.
Skills can be developed under supervised, meaningful practice. Hence with more speed, more accuracy and more beauty of output can be achieved. Similarly, in shorthand, ability to write correctly at first and later with speed are all examples of skills. Ability to read back what one had written is a skill, phrasing is a skill, developing these skills enhances the greater the proficiency of the person. In book-keeping, skill is shown in the ability of a student to past the various sums of student to past the various ledger accounts, so as to show understanding of the use of cash book, use of trail balance, use of cash book, use of trading profit and loss account and the balance sheet to mention a few. The students need practice to be able to do the posting correctly.
Guidance is useful in order to help them master the skills; commerce on the other hand is not a very skill-centered subject unless a student is involved in projects. A commerce project involves actual setting up a shop or outfit for example, and running it. The facts learned in class may now be utilized in running the shop. Then the skill of the person may be notice. The theoretician (full of facts) may do well in class but fail practical. Such person may be said to have learned no skill that has to do carrying out tasks. Skill is a doing knowledge. In teaching skills there should be a demonstrated application stage.
The third stage is the integration stage. At the integration stage so many ideas gathered at various other times are employed. The components of the skill are all incorporate by learning till they perform at a seemingly effortlessness rate. Smoothness is noticed in a skill performance. There is no mistake when one is an expert in a small dictation and transcription, secretarial office practice and administrative duties can be presented as tasks to students for a stipulated time to see how they can perform.
Those who are able to carry out certain task correctly, effortlessly and smoothly are likely to be the more skilled ones.
Attainment of skill at a given level of expectation is also called a competency those who have attained a certain level of competency are usually the ones assigned to higher level of to tasks, sometimes of different nature and complexity, to see how they utilize previous competencies or skills in solving the newer tasks or problems for every subject involving skills, there is also a standard for the teacher and the learners for example, both should know and respect the standard, be co-operative, by willing to teach, learn peacefully, use the latest or newest style and contact as well as honor each aspect learn as something really important during the interaction, it will help to listen tom complaints and to vary approaches.
The time element is a significant part of a standard for example, how long does someone take to type, to post, to extract information and so on. If one is more competent, time spent doing the task correctly is less.

No teacher should be satisfied when product of a programme of studies cannot perform at a rate comparable competencies with products of similar programme in other countries. 

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