Saturday, 21 March 2015

Causes of Examination Malpractice

Denga (1998) agrees that the causes of examination malpractice have boiled down to three factors namely:
i.            Psychological
ii.          Environmental

iii.        Intelligence
i.      Psychological:  This includes all the stress which is often induced by parent(s), the peer pressure and student(s). They experienced enormous stress and anxiety in trying to meet the various demands of subject significantly.
        A study conducted by Drake (1941) Monday (1971) and Killer (1976) support this psychological reason.  The stress and anxiety experienced by students during examination are conspicuous.  Thus it has been criticized because students tend to develop undesirable habit Ward (1986), Lamin (1984), Murphy (1988) which normally lead them to be poorly prepared for examination and subsequently expose them in engaging in examination malpractice and misconduct.  This psychological factors also bring in Maslow Motivational Theories which emphasize the basic needs and physiological needs of man.
        He argues that, these needs motivate and enhance learning, that if a student’s physiological need is not physically met, it will affect his concentration in teaching and learning situation, thereby preparing the students’ cognition at a very low level and encourage the students to engage in all sort of misconduct and examination malpractice.
ii.     Environmental Factor:  This is another factor stated by Denga (1983) that basically led students/co-readers to examination malpractices and misconduct.  The environmental factor include, the crowded nature of the classroom/theatres as well as examination hall, with few invigilators during examination.
        Teacher inability to cover the stipulated syllabus for the period being stated before an internal or external examination like promotional examination, West African Examination Council or even Joint Admission and Matriculation Board. Obsolete and obscured instructional material, which are inadequate in school may force some students to cheat even if they do not want to cheat in an examination.
iii.    Intelligence Factors:  Adeloye (2004), in his book stated that the concept of individual must be built at the black of our mind when comparing academic competence, ability and comprehensive of one student with another.
The failure of students to recognize the fact that intelligence Quotient (IQ) differs and cannot be compared with others.  Thus academically the student will at a time try to compare himself with naturally gifted students, who are brilliant while the weak academic student is not able to meet up with the challenges, the option of “missing links” with external help to pass examination.  This missing links is associated with missconcepts and malpractices.
        According to Ihieme (2000) students strive to pass by all means to avoid the stigma that goes with failure.  He further pointed out that failure goes with the impression that the victim is not bright and may lead to loss of job or promotion.

        Other factors include:
        Inadequate preparation on the part of the student:  The recent economic condition has imposed adult responsibility on some children who assist their parents in running the family.  Some children serve as sales Girls, Boys, workshop attendants and so on; as a result they are too tired to attend to their school work after a hard day’s job.
        Furthermore, some students do not read their books until it is time for examination.  This group of students indulge themselves in different activities after closing from school.  For example some roam about the streets, others attend parties, while some play football.  As a result of this, they are neither useful at home nor school.
        Lack of Adequate Human Resource are Teaching Skills:  In most schools in the rural areas in Nigeria, teaching of science and laboratory experiments are nothing to write home about.  This is as a result of lack of qualified manpower.  This case is highly predominant in senior secondary schools where science subjects are taught.
2.5   Effects of Examination Malpractice
        1.     Discourage good candidates from studying hard:  Good candidates are tempted to believe “if you cannot beat them, join them” especially as they see other candidates get away with their corrupt behaviours.  This behavior may be contagious as more and more candidates tend to join examination malpractice.  They believe that even if they are caught, they will get away with it and the end will justify the means.
2.     Denies innocent student’s opportunity for admission:  Many good students have been denied admission by the corrupt ones who through examination malpractice have better scores and grades.  The best brains that could help in research and development are likely to be thrown out or frustrated while seeking admission.
3.     Delays the processing examination scores and grades:  As every year, many students are caught for engaging in various examination malpractices which need to be investigated before results are released.  Through some results are withheld pending the determination of the cases, some are decided before results are released.  This extends processing time.

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