Wednesday, 26 April 2017

Composition of Microbial Air Contamination

Composition of Microbial Air Contamination

microorganisms  participate significantly in air con¬tamination . In 2002 the concentration of fungi exceeded bacterial contents across almost all year and  the distribution of fungi and bacteria was on average equal in july 2003, (Reponen et al.2003).

 38 % of the total number of filamentous fungi round in 2002 in the centre of Poznari was occupied by the genera Cladosporium spp, other genera of fungi associated with air contamination are  Muccor spp, Allernaria spp.bacteria species that are also associated with air contamination includes Staphylococcus sp, streptococcus sp, E. coli  corynebacteria sp,  pseudomonas sp and actinomycetes.

1.1 Pig farming

Pig farming upon increase and improvements in agriculture to satisfy human needs, farmers began to specialize in different activities resulting in drastic trends from almost every farm or keeping pigs outdoors to currently, less than 600 commercial pig farms. Donham and co-worker (1977) were the first to observer the harmful effect of working with pigs. Since then much research has been directed to the hazards encountered by the workers in these swine couture environments. It has been acknowledged that the increased frequency of symptoms of respiratory disease is related to the number of years and percentage (time) spent working with swine environment (Donham et al., 1989). Hoppin and co-workers (2003), in a study aimed at investigating the role of animal exposures and wheeze, found that among European farm swine farmers had more worker related symptoms and were fifty percent more likely to wheeze than cattle farms.

2.1 Respiratory Hazard in Piggery farm

The air of piggery farm usually is very complex and contains much contamination that is hazardous to human health. the respiratory hazard to which piggery farm workers are exposed includes gases, swine, confinement dust and microorganism or their components that can became air borne and be inhaled. Gases are predominantly produced in piggery production facilities either  directly by animals or their excreta  or by microbial degradation of manure. (Lemay, 2002).
Case reports of many out break have occurred due to air contamination. The out break of Mycobacterium tuberclosis which occured at Edo State in (2001) among pig farm workers posed a serious health challenge to health agencies in the state (Lyada and Egbom, 2008).

2.9 Safety measures in piggery farm

  1. Proper disposal of waste and sewage from the farm.
  2. Good hygiene in the farm house (Prescott et al., 2001).
  3. Avoid long exposure in such environment.
  4. Regular grass cutting and weeding of the farm.
  5. Regular assessment and monitoring of air quality.
  6. Regular sanitation of the farm. Also environment activities that can encourage fungal growth and also support their spores production should be discouraged. 



In this study the research was carried out in piggery farm of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki. The sample collection site was divided into 5 units,  In each of the measuring units,  samples were taken at heights of 5m above the ground with each stand  kept at distance of 25km away to the next stands. The farm contain two barn made of erected building where these pig were kept. The one with about 150 sows and the other about 130 sows each making about 280 sows in the farm.

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