Wednesday, 14 December 2016

EVALUATION OF MALARIA IN PREGNANCY AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC AT FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE

EVALUATION OF MALARIA IN PREGNANCY AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC AT FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRES

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was evaluate malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Abakaliki metropolis. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A convenience method of sampling was sued to select 80 pregnant women from federal medical centre
Abakaliki metropolis. A validated question naira constructed by the research was used. Data derived from the study were subjected to simple descriptive statistics major findings of the study showed that mosquito transmits malaria but still attribute it to other factors in conjunction with mosquito while a lesser percentage attributed it to malaria alone. Findings also showed that knowledge of the proper preventive measures is good but usage is poor. It was moreover, revealed that majority of the pregnant women go to hospital when they have malaria, though a good number use both traditional herbs and orthodox medicine at the time when they have malaria. Majority of pregnant women have knowledge of some malaria risk factors but also attribute risk factors but also attribute risk to inappropriate factor such as poor hygiene, excessive sun. It is recommended among other things that health care providers especially the primary health care workers embark on health education and emphasized more on the importance of the proper treatment of malaria, use of proper preventive measures and the risk factors for malaria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication- - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - - - vi
List of tables - - - - - - - - - - x
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of this Study - - - - - - - 1
Statement of the Problem - - - - - - - 5
Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - - 5
Research Questions- - - - - - - - 6
Significance of the Study - - - - - - - 7
Scope of the Study - - - - - - - - - 8
Operational Definition of Term - - - - - - 8
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of Malaria in Pregnancy - - - - - - 9
People's Perspectives about Malaria - - - - - 11
History and Cause of Malaria - - - - - - - 13
Epidemiology and Entomology - - - - - - 14
Clinical Manifestation of Malaria - - - - - -15
Diagnosis of Malaria - - - - - - - -16
Treatment of Malaria - - - - - - - - 17
Supportive Management - - - - - - - 17
Specific Treatment - - - - - - - - - 18
Blood Schiyzoyticides - - - - - - - - 18
Tissue Schizonticides - - - - - - - - 19
Drug combination - - - - - - - - - 19
How to treat a patient with malaria depends on  
 the following - - - - - - - - - - 19
Control and prevention of malaria - - - - - - 21
Malaria vaccines - - - - - - - - - 26
Activities for Malaria Control - - - - - - - 27
Empirical Literature Review - - - - - - - 28
Analysis of Empirical Review - - - - - - - 35
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design - - - - - - - - - 37
Area of Study - - - - - - - - - 37
Sample Technique - - - - - - - - - 38
Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - - 38
Validation of Instrument - - - - - - - 39
Reliability of Instrument - - - - - - - 39
Method for Data Collection - - - - - - - 39
Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - - 40
Ethical Consideration - - - - - - - - 41

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Objective One - - - - - - - - -52
Objective Two - - - - - - - - - 53
Objective Three - - - - - - - - - 55
Implications for Nursing - - - - - - - 56
Limitations for the Study - - - - - - - 56
Suggestion for further Study - - - - - - - 57
Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - 57
Recommendation - - - - - - - - - 59
References - - - - - - - - - - 61
Questionnaire - - - - - - - - - 63



LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Age - - - - - - - - - - 42
Table 2: Marital Status - - - - - - - - 43
Table 3: Religion - - - - - - - - - 44
Table 4: Occupation - - - - - - - - 44
Table 5: Educational Status - - - - - - - 45
Table 6: The number of subjects who have heard of 
Malaria - - - - - - - - - - - 46
Table 7: Causes of malaria as perceived by the 
Respondents - - - - - - - - - - 46
Table 8: Options of Mothers on the Measures to 
Prevent Malaria in Pregnancy - - - - - - 47
Table 9: Number of Respondents that have had 
Malaria during Periods of their Pregnancy - - - - 49
Table 11: List of orthodox drugs used by 
respondents to treat malaria - - - - - - - 51

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of this Study
Malaria is the most important parasitic disease in the tropic and remains of highest public health importance (Okeke and Okafor, 2003). Maternity mortality and morbidity are among the major health problem in developing counties, including Nigeria and in sub Sahara Africa. Malaria due to plasmodium falciparum in pregnancy is the major contributing factor to these problems. About 47% of pregnant women are diagnosed with malaria in Nigeria (Nigeria government in action 2003) and an estimated one million people die in Africa from malaria each year and most of them are children under five years and pregnant women (World Health Organization, 2002). Pregnant women are a greater risk than non pregnant women and the severity of the signs and symptoms experienced by the former and their foetus are dependent on the level of body immunity before pregnancy (Wagbatsoma and Omoike, 2008).  The increased severity of malaria in pregnant women may also be due to reduced maternal immunity as a result of increasing demand by the going fetus, increased attractiveness of pregnant women to mosquito and cyto adherence chloride ion sulphate A in the placenta steketee Breman, Paluku, moore, mardisu, 2003). Experiences with malaria have shown that prevention is better than cure, like in any other disease and practice of malaria preventive and treatment measures may be related to knowledge and belief of people. Malaria-related knowledge, attitude and practices have been examined in some rural and partly urban multiethnic population in Africa (Okrah, Trore, pale, Sonnerfeld and Miller, 2002 Tsuyuoke, Wagatsuma and Makunike, 2001, Dosson-yoro, Amalaman and Camera,

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