Tuesday, 1 November 2016


This involves all the procedure used to ensure an effective collection of information in the process of study from the current trend of electoral system, so as to identify lapses and present the role of online voting system towards efficient electoral process. Facts were collected on the conduct and process of voting results at Independent Electoral commission.

Having achieved the software requirements, the next step was to source for information relative to the subject. This process of information gathering was achieved through so many sources including:

3.2.1 Interview Method

This is face-to-face interaction between people designed to extract knowledge. This method was preferable to other method like questionnaires, because one could ask questions from what is being said by the person being interviewed (interviewer) unlike questionnaire that is limited. I interviewed principal officer of Ebonyi state Independent Electoral commission and political aspirants to obtain first hand information of how elections and voting are conducted, how results are processed and the commission usage of information technology. In addition, I interviewed known party officials, web managers, and discussion groups on how they conduct elections.

3.2.2 Evaluation of forms and Manuals

This is a method used in obtaining information by studying old and current document or books with the aim of extracting some vital information that are relevant to election management, political structure and policies. Among the manual evaluated was the “Ward councilor on Local Government and Development Areas in Ebonyi state”, voting form and sample of election Result Sheet.

Other techniques I used to obtain resource facts are:
·        File downloads from the Internet
·        Textbooks
·        Newspaper, Journals and articles
·        Personal observations of the Electoral system in Ebonyi local government.


System analysis is a problem solving technique that decomposes a system into its component pieces for the purpose of studying how well those component parts work and interact to achieve their purpose. This is a complete resolution from the present system to a more advanced one. From the information gathered and the investigation conducted by reviewing of the existing systems. It shows that the existing system of voting in Nigeria is highly manual; the INEC has a laid out data capture form that is used to register residents in their area. A period of registration is set to start and end on a particular day, such a period is announced to the public using various mass communication means including radios and newspaper publications. During such periods, intending voters are expected to report to these officers to be registered using a paper and a pen. Every potential voter fills a form with details such as location, date of birth among others also individuals must be verified to be residents of an area.
The INEC officers collects the filled data forms from officials at the end of the registration process to be the forms are then submitted to the INEC adhoc to input entries into the central database from which a voter register is produced. At the end of this process, voter registration cards are produced and issued to voters.
The use of punch card was also introduced that serves as accreditation for voters, which is not serving us better, in the previous election statistics record of numbers that were accredited are smaller than the numbers that were not accredited.
The Nigerian Electoral Commission administers Nigeria's federal electoral roll. Each state also has its own electoral commission or office, but voters need only register with the INEC, which passes the registration details to relevant state commissions. Voter Registration is mandatory for all citizens 18 years of age or above. Periodically the Electoral Commission conducts door-to-door and postal campaigns to try to ensure that all eligible persons are registered for voting.
The one registration covers Federal, State and Local voter registration.


The current system of voting and result processing by INEC has the following objectives:
v To ensure accountability for vote cast at polling station and
v To reduce the incidence of errors in adding individual candidates votes.
In the system, data collection, processing retrieval and result generation were done manually. The existing system is grouped into the following:
v INPUT----------VOTING


Several problems tend to exist within the use of the system and as such include:
·              Stepping down of elected officials: In this regard all elected officers ranging from the presidency, the Governors to the local Government Chairman should step down before the general elections is conducted, this is due to the fact that such officials have influence over the election in their respective domain, they have the power to hijack the electioneering materials thereby dictating the area where ballot boxes would be sent to and not to be sent.
·              Invalid votes: A vote is considered to be invalid if the thumbprint has not been placed at the right spot. Also, a ballot paper which is improperly folded can be the cause of an invalid vote.
·              Long voting process: The manual voting exercise involves a number of steps that result in long queues. This is because each voter takes a considerable amount of time to vote.
·              Delays in result publication: It has been gathered that it takes the INEC about three days to eventually publish a presidential election result.
·              High cost of election organizing: The procurement of materials that ensure the validity of the voter’s registration, as well as the complete success of the electoral process makes election costs very high. Indelible ink, ballot boxes and papers as well as other logistics, despite being expensive, are indispensable in a manual voting system.
·              Unauthorized announcement of election results
·              Harassment of candidates, agents and voters
·              Box-switching and inflation of figures.


Data analysis is a body of method that helps to describe facts, detect patterns. It is the process of looking at and summarizing data with the intent to extract useful information and develop conclusion. Data analysis in case of INEC involves the physical analysis of both the input forms and output forms and output forms as used by the commission. The details are provided in subsequent sections.

3.5.1  Input Analysis

The registration of candidates and voters is first process of preparation for any voting system. Voting means the position of voters with regard to the candidate to any of the election. This may involve queuing behind the candidate or any symbol that represent the same. Thumb printing on symbol that represents the candidate. The existing system in manual form has specification for input data. They include details of the voters and the electoral officials, voters register, voting form, and result compilation sheet. The electoral officer before casting of vote must confirm the eligibility and validity of the voter.

3.5.2  Process Analysis

In the existing system, counting of vote involved the sorting out of voters card marked with the thumb print according to party symbols and count bundle member of votes score by the first candidate in the space provided in both figure and words and thereafter proceed to the same process to the next candidate. INEC stipulate that before a candidate is considered to have won an election if he/she is able to secure the favor of two third of the vote cast in the particular electoral constituency. The system implement the total vote cast well, a condition for a win otherwise, bye-election will be conducted. This specification will serve as input to the resident electoral commissioner or processing input. The process could be represented in a system flowchart as shown in  NO                                                                    


Fig 3.5.2(i): System flowchart of the existing system

3.5.3  Output Analysis
The output from the system designed is generated from the system inputs. More of the output generated is on voters register.

The new system will help to solve all the problems inherent in the existing system. The justification for the new system includes:
v Direct capture of Voters register
v Error free processing of data
v  Early display of voters registers before election
v  Checks double voting
v Detects double registration

v Transparency 

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