Thursday, 7 April 2016

Effective Teaching of Physical Education Through ICT Among Generalist Trained Teachers in Elementary Schools


Background of the Study

Education of today is no longer the same with that of the past due to introduction and advancement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which has made the world a global village. Different Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) devices such as the radio, television, projector, video, computer, internet etc have been introduced to aid the teaching and learning processes for both teachers and learners in the school system. Many school subjects are now being taught with the aid of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) devices especially at the elementary school level.

Physical education as an integral part of the total educational process is not left out in this development. Physical education which is the bedrock of sports is a phase of education which deals with the development and adjustment of the individual through a carefully planned and conducted programme of physical activities and related experiences. Such programmes are usually aimed at specific and general outcomes (Obahor & Igini, 2005). It is a form of education through a well-planned programme of physical activities aimed at meeting up with the maximum developments of the individual physically, mentally, morally and socially (Odigbo 1985 & Ogharaerunmi, 2003).

Physical education is one of the academic subjects taught to children from the primary to secondary and tertiary schools. As an academic subject, physical education is mainly combined with health education especially at the secondary and tertiary school level/system (Mkpuma & Aja, 2010).
At the primary school level, it is also sometimes taught or combined with health education. The teaching of physical education at the elementary school system is mostly done by generalist teachers who mainly teach all the subjects in a class assigned to him or her.

Over the years, physical education teaching like other traditional subjects such as mathematics and language art has utilized the traditional teaching methods such as command, lecture and play way methods for teaching (dive, 2004). These methods mainly demand the teacher to instruct and direct the learners who are considered immature and inexperienced. This lays an onus on the teacher “as a know it all”, put much pressure on him/her, making him/her getting exhausted easily on daily basis (Sloan, 2010).
The situation is more complex to generalist teachers at the elementary school level who is expected to teach all the subjects and may not have adequate knowledge and technical know-how (skills) in physical education. The said teacher in this sense is mostly aimed at curriculum coverage and not quality/effectiveness (Price, 2008; Blair, & Capel, 2008).

Today, as more sophisticated technology is developed and utilized, the quest for quality and effective teaching of school subjects including physical education is becoming paramount. Information and Communication Technological devices are now being used to aid and promote effective teaching and learning for school teachers and learners (Clive & Graham, 2004). The term Information and Communication Technology (ICT) refers to forms of technologies that are used to create, store, share or transmit, exchange information (Vikas, 2012). This broad definition of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) includes such technologies as radio, television, video, DVD, telephone (both fixed line and mobile phones), satellite systems, computer and network hardware and software; as well as the equipment and services associated with these technologies, such as videoconferencing and electronic mail (UNESCO, 2002).

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT5) are potentially powerful tool for extending educational opportunities, both formal and non-formal, to previously underserved constituencies-scattered and rural populations, groups traditionally excluded from education due to cultural or social reasons such as ethnic minorities, girls and women, persons with disabilities and the elderly as well as all others who for reasons of cost or because of time constraints are unable to enroll on campus (Vikas, 2012). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an aid in the teaching process. It helps students to acquire information in an independent manner, communication and interaction between students and teachers, students and students outside world.
In Physical Education (PE), Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is used for data and information source; models and modeling; control and monitoring and refining and presenting information (Vikas, 2012).


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