Monday, 6 March 2017

What is wistar rats

What is wistar rats
What is wistar rats:
Wistar rats are laboratory rats which have red eyes and white fur that are used for scientific research in various fields of human endeavour. They are of the species Rattus norvegicus which is bred and kept for scientific research. Wistar rats have served as important animal model for research in biotechnology, biochemistry, psychology, medicine and other fields (Ben-Ami Bartal et al., 2011). The Wistar rats are outbred stocks used in all fields of medicine and biological researches. Its longevity and high rate of spontaneous tumours make it an ideal choice for ageing studies. Wistar rat is an albino strain, easy-to-handle, it is however slower than Long Evans rat (Pettitt et al., 2009).

The Wistar rats were developed at the wistar institute in 1906 for use in biological and medical researches, and are notably the first rats developed to serve as model organisms at a time when laboratories primarily used the common house mouse (Mus musculus). The Wistar rats are currently one of the most popular rats used for laboratory researches. They are characterized by their wide head, long ears and having tail lengths that are always less than their body lengths. They are more active than other rats like Sprague Dawley rats (Pettitt et al., 2009).


Wistar rats share origins with their cousins in domestication, the fancy rats. In 18th century Europe, wild brown rats ran rampant and infestation fuelled the industry of rat catching. Rat catchers would not only make money by trapping the rodents but also by selling them for food, most commonly for rat-baiting. Rat-baiting was a popular sport which involved filling a pit with rats and timing how long it took for a terrier to kill all of them. Over time breeding the rats for these contests may have produced variations in colour, notably the albino and hooded varieties (Kuramoto and Takashi 2012).
In there was a widespread practice of keeping rats as a domesticated pet during the Edo period and in the 18th century guidebooks on keeping domestic rats were published by Youso Tamanokakehashi (1775) and Chigan Sodategusa (1787). Genetic analysis of 117 albino rats strains collected from all parts of the world was carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto at Kyoto University in 2012 showed that the albino rats descended from the hooded rats and that all the albino rats descended from a single ancestor.


Wistar rat have served as an important animal model for research in fields of medicine and biology. The rats were formerly used in five different areas of laboratory research: W.S. Small suggested that the rate of learning could be measured by rats in a maze; a suggestion exploited by John B. Watson for his Ph.D dissertation in 1903. They have been used since the early years of scientific discoveries and still contribute greatly today to our understanding of individual genes, the mechanisms of action of different diseases, and the effectiveness and toxicities of various medicines and chemicals. The wistar rats strains of albino rats for research in immunology, oncology, psychology, physiology, pathology and increasingly medical and biological fields (Woo et al., 2008).
Labome surveyed publications employing wistar rats in their work. Woo et al, used male wistar rats to develop a mechanistic model for chemotherapy-induced anaemia. Angliano et al, obtainedhepatic stellate cells from Wistar rats to investigate the effect of atorvastation on apoptosis. Pettit et al, (2009) used Charles Rivers’ male Wistar rats to perform animal studies in order to investigate the influence of resveratrol on mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle (Pettitt et al., 2009).


The use of blood examination as a way of assessing the health status of the animal has be documented (Muhammed et al., 2000; Muhammed et al., 2004; Owoyele et al., 2003). So haematology play an important role in physiological, nutritional, and pathological status of organisms. They range from giving the level of the blood to detecting ailments or disorders through them. Haematology plays it vital role in study of the effect of the methanol extracts of Piper guineense on alcohol induced albino Wister rat (Ovuru and Ekweozor, 2004).
Haematological profiles both in animal and human sciences is an important index of the physiological state of the individual. The ability to interpret the state of the blood profile in normal and in disease conditions is among its primary tasks. It has been seen by many researchers that there is a definite change in the profile of the blood cells throughout the life (Khan et al., 1987).

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