Friday, 21 August 2015

Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes

Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale (Jeremy, 2008), Climate according the World Meteorological Organization (2007) is the average atmospheric condition of a place. Climate can change over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years, the classical time period is 30 years.

The climate change referred to, may be due to natural causes e.g. Change in the earth’s weather including change in temperature, wind pathern, rainfall and change in the sun out pat or due to human activities for example changing the composition of the atmosphere (Albrillon, 2001). Any human induced changes in climate will occur against the background of natural climate variation.
 Impact of climate change on agriculture varies based on the wide variety of agricultural practices employed around the world. Global warming is projected to have significant impact on conditions effecting agriculture including temperature, precipitation and glacial runoff. The conditions determine the carrying capacity of the biosphere to produce enough food for the human population and domesticated animals (Marcoux, 2000). Rising level of Carbon-dioxide would also have impact, both detrimental and beneficial on crop yield.  Assessment of the impact of global changes on agriculture might help to properly anticipate and adapt farming to minimize agricultural production.
 Climate change will impact agriculture and food production around the world due to the effects of elevated Co2 in the atmosphere, high temperature altered precipitation regimes, increased frequency of extreme events, pest and pathogen pressure. (Easterling,  2007). In general, low latitude areas are at most risk of having decreased crop yields (Schneider, 2007). Changes in crop phenology provide important evidence of the response to recent regional climate change which Ebonyi State is among (Parry, 2007) phenology is the study of natural phenomena that reoccur periodically, and how these phenomena relate to climate and seasonal change (Parry, 2007).
Agriculture and small holder farming sector dominate Ebonyi State’s economy. Agriculture provide foods, employment and livelihood, for about 70& of their population because of the three rice mill cluster processing machine, feed mill machine, poultry farm, Fertilizer company  and other Agro processing companies that are functioning in Ebonyi State. All these industries depend on the raw material from agriculture if there is favourable climate. Climate is the primary determinant of agricultural productivity and livestock production. Climate change is expected to influence crop and livestock production in Ebonyi State.
There is a growing consensus in the scientific literature that in the coming decades, the world will witness higher temperature and changing precipitation levels. The effect of this will lead to low/poor agricultural productivity. Evidence has shown that climate change has already affecting crop yield in Ebonyi State and 

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